Drones, UAV’s, UAS, RPAS – whatever terminology that you may use, unmanned aerial vehicles are becoming more and more popular, not just for use by hobbyists who like to fly them on weekends, but for commercial purposes.
Using Drones for Commercial Use
Commercial use of drones ranges from aerial photography and filming, to being used in anti-poaching operations, aerial surveys, crop spraying, wildlife and other forms of monitoring, parcel delivery, delivering of medical supplies to remote areas, evaluation of fire scenes and incidents and surveillance.
Major retailers such as Amazon, are experimenting with drone technology for the fulfilment of orders in their larger warehouses, as well as looking at the viability of utilising drones to do deliveries. Large industrial plants are investigating the use of drones for spare parts logistics. Drones have been used to deliver blood and other essential medical supplies in hard-to-reach rural areas in countries like Rwanda.
Delivery options such as these, if they become a viable option for urban areas can increase the speed of deliveries, as well as saving resources and streamlining processes.
There are infinite applications, which are limited only by the technology that is currently available.
Negative uses of Drone Technology
Drone technology has many benefits when used in a positive manner. But like most technologies, there is a dark side to it as well. The most common “negative” use of drone technology that is prevalent, is the use of weaponised drones in warfare, as well as drones that have been used for espionage.
Criminals are also embracing drone technology. There have been reports of drones being used to smuggle items into prisons for the prisoners. In the UK, criminals have attached thermal imaging cameras onto drones in order to pick up the heat signatures of their rival’s marijuana farms, in order that they can steal from them. There are also what are known as “Narcotics drones”. These are drones that are used by drug dealers to smuggle drugs over the U.S./Mexican borders.
Closer to home, there is the potential for criminals to utilise drones to identify potential targets for robberies, both of commercial and private properties.
The word “Drone” has a negative connotation due to the use of weaponised drones that have been used in warfare by various countries, so the preferred name is the term RPAS – Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems. This definition encompasses the wide range of RPA systems that are available, from miniature units that can fit into the palm of your hand to larger fixed wing units with wingspans of more than 1m.
Risks involving RPAS
But with every technology, there is some element of risk that is involved. The military potential for destruction and the criminal element have already been highlighted, but the risks involving RPAS to the civilian user is just as high.
Injury to the Public
RPA’s can be very dangerous if not operated safely. Multi-rotor RPAS units have very sharp carbon fibre blades that can cause injury if they come into contact with a person. There has been a case in England where a toddler has lost an eye due to being injured by the blade of a RPA that was being flown in the backyard of the house.
Most RPA’s are powered by a rechargeable Lithium Polymer battery. As the recent Samsung Galaxy Note 7 incidents have illustrated, Lithium batteries can be very dangerous, if they are not manufactured or handled correctly. The Lithium Polymer batteries that are generally used in RPA’s are large and very powerful. If these batteries are not managed properly, they can be damaged and the damage to the battery can cause it to explode or ignite.
Besides the safety issues surrounding the RPA itself, other risks from the negligent operation of an RPA are the following:
Collision with other aircraft, with possible fatal results
There are frequent reports from around the world of pilots reporting RPA’s flying near their aircraft when coming into land. Besides the blatant disregard of the laws stating that RPA units should not fly within 10 km of an aerodrome, this is very dangerous. If the RPA had to strike the aircraft at a critical point while landing, and get caught up in an engine or wing flap, there could be disastrous consequences for the aircraft.
Other risks include damaging people’s property and legal liability for breaking laws such as privacy by-laws and other laws enforceable by other authorities.
Minimising the Risk
So, how can this be prevented? Firstly, by implementing specific legislation with regards to RPAS, and secondly by educating the public as to the risks and the rules regarding the use of RPAS.
South Africa is one of the first countries in the world that has introduced legislation with regards to the operation of Remote Piloted Aviation Systems (RPAS). With the rapid growth in the RPAS industry and the increased use of RPAS for commercial applications, legislation is necessary to ensure the safety and security of everyone who shares civil aviation airspace.
Part 101: Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems – the regulations that govern the operation of RPAS in South Africa became applicable in July 2015. These regulations cover the use of RPAS for commercial operations, corporate operations, non-profit operations and private operations.
With regards to operating RPAS in South Africa, if a person operates a RPAS unit for their own use, it may only be used for an individual’s personal and private purposes where there is no commercial outcome, interest or gain. The pilot must observe all statutory requirements relating to liability, privacy and any other laws enforceable by any other authorities. It is also a requirement that those that sell RPAS, display notices and inform buyers of the basic regulations as it applies to private and other uses of the systems that they sale
Commercial operations; corporate operations or non-profit operations
If an entity or a person is operating a RPAS for commercial operations; corporate operations or non-profit operations, the RPA must be registered and may only be operated in terms of Part 101 of the South African Civil Aviation Regulations.
Aviation Security Awareness Training for RPAS
Often the reason that individuals make mistakes or inadvertently break the rules, is that they are not aware of what the risks are or the potential threats. Therefore, one of the mandatory requirements is that all personnel employed in the deployment, handling, and storage of RPAS need to undergo Aviation Security Awareness Training, as detailed in Part 109 of the Civil Aviation Regulations.
Professional Aviation Services has been involved in the Aviation industry in one form or another for the last 35 years. We specialise in offering risk services in terms of compliance; aviation security consulting; training and aircraft sales.
We are passionate about educating and equipping people, and we are an approved Aviation Security Training Organisation. We offer the only SACAA approved Aviation Security Awareness training course designed specifically for RPAS operations. If you would like to find out more or book a training session, please contact us. Training is available at all our facilities. To find out more, please visit our training site, www.professionaltraining.co.za.
In terms of mitigating risk and increasing security, education is key. The correct application of the regulations, the ongoing education of the public and the safe operation of RPAS, will go a long way in keeping the skies and people safe. This will create an environment where the use of RPAS technology to solve problems can become a reality.
Air operators are required to comply with Special Provision A154 of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods which stipulate that “lithium batteries identified by the manufacturer as being defective for safety reasons; or that have been damaged; or that have the potential of producing a dangerous evolution of heat, fire or short circuit are forbidden for transport by air (e.g. those being returned to the manufacturer for safety reasons). The same provision can be found in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.
It is essential that all in the secure supply chain and air cargo industries stay up to date with developments that impact their business and the safety and security of the aviation industry.
The transport of lithium batteries by air is a complex subject that requires companies to stay up to date with all applicable regulations.
The best way to do this is to ensure that you have access to the latest IATA DGR and Lithium Battery Shipping Guidelines. These publications are now available in the 2017 edition.
Please contact David Alexander if you need assistance or would like to order these critical IATA publications.
The benefits of having more Known Consignor’s in South Africa in relation to an improved Secure Supply Chain environment.
by: Elliot Molemi, Aviation Security Consultant, Professional Aviation Services
Since the introduction of Part 108 into the Civil Aviation Regulations of South Africa there has been a total of 120 Known Consignors accredited by the Civil Aviation Authority, this number has gone up and down over the years and at the time of writing this post there were only 27 left. This number is dwarfed by that of approved Regulated Agents which stands at 136.
More disturbingly is that this means the country’s air cargo secure supply chain has lost 93 Known Consignors in the past 5 years or so. This slump can be attributed to numerous reasons; intangible commercial benefit, and insufficient knowledge by consignors, no targeted workshops by the authority to disseminate information and chief among all the subtle discouragement from Regulated Agents.
The role the industry can play
From the CAA, Airlines and Ground Handlers, there is no member of the secure supply chain better positioned to encourage the participation of consignors in the secure supply chain than the Freight Forwarder. The forwarders have daily dealings with consignors. Consignors believe that Part 108 is an onerous process and the Designated Officials of Regulated Agents can help in allaying this myth.